History of Soap Making
Soap making is seen in the earliest times of human civilisation. Both the early Egyptians as well as the Babylonians made soap by boiling animal fats with ashes. By the time of the Roman Empire, soap was widely used by the textile industry for cleaning wool and cotton. The Romans started using soap for bathing later in the second century with the development of the more gentle Celtic soap.
The origins of the word “soap” are derived from the Celtic word “saipo,” coming from the Latin word “sebum,” meaning fat or tallow. Their best quality “saipo,” as it was called, came from beech wood ash and goat fat.
Chemistry of Soap
Fat and oil are chemically known as triester where a glycerol (propan-1,2,3-triol) backbone is linked with three long-chained molecules called fatty acid. The ester link can be broken under alkaline conditions (such as boiling them in ashes which contains various metal oxides). In alkaline condition, the fatty acids will deprotonate forming carboxylate ions with long alkyl (hydrocarbon) chain. The alkyl chain is called the hydrophobic tail as it repels water and dissolves oily substances which are nonpolar. The negatively charged head of carboxylate ion is called the hydrophilic head which attracts polar substances such as water making the molecule a “bridge” between the aqueous and organic phase.
Soap works in two ways:
Firstly, the soap is acting as a surfactant which lowers the surface tension of water. This property allows water to reach smaller gaps during the cleaning process as well as forms bubble which we all love. Secondly, the soap molecule acts as a bridge between the organic phase of the grease and the aqueous phase of water, the soap surrounded the grease forming a ball shape called micelle which detached the grease layer from the surface.
Our Hand Crafted Soap
The soap making process has not changed much throughout the history, and in Just Crafting Studio, we carry on with the traditional way to make soap and provide you with a wide range of high-quality handcrafted soap.
We take pride in our work from choosing the ingredients to the manufacturing process and they are all done with utmost care and love. Our staff studied the use of different essential and natural oils to ensure our products will give you the washing experience you have never experienced before.
Check out our handcrafted soap range now.
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